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让英语作文成绩“直逼”满分
jiazhang.cnycedu.com   2010-05-18 13:24:13 关键字:SystemMaster 来源: 文字大小:[][][]

  写作是英语词汇、语法和使用英语诸方面能力的真实反应。高考中的书面表达是一种有控制的写作(controlled writing),或称有指导的作文 (guided composition)。随着近年来学生英语水平的提高,高考书面表达的要求也在不断提高。五年前可以得20分的作文,现在连15分也得不上了。因此,考生必须重视书面表达的备考与应试。

  一、 好作文的具体要求

  2010年全国将有20套左右高考试题,书面表达题的测试形式和所占分数也各有不同。但一般的要求是:根据所给情景,写一篇100个单词左右的书面材料;情景包括目的、对象、时间、地点、内容等,提供情景的形式有图画、图表、提纲、短文等。书面表达的要求是:切中题意;语言准确,得当;条理清楚。

  好的作文应达到以下几点(多数省市要求写一篇短文,计分25分):

  1.要点全面、表达准确、语句连贯,符合交际要求。

  2.能用书写体熟练清楚地书写,格式、连笔、词距、标点正确。

  3.书写格式、行文及礼貌用语等无严重错误。

  4.基本语法和常用句型无严重错误,意思表达清楚。

  5.恰当使用复杂结构、新颖词汇和顺畅连接。

  二、 试评学生真实高考作文得分

  以下是两篇从高考学生考卷中选取的作文。请你根据参考答案和评分标准,自己给它们评个分数,这对你了解高考作文的具体要求非常有好处。

  试题:

  (2007年北京试卷)假设你是李华,要给英国笔友Harry写封信,介绍你班两位同学竞选班长的过程。请按下图顺序描述。(20分)

  注意:1.信的开头已为你写好。2.词数不少于60。

  提示词:竞选班长monitor election

  (二)评分标准:

  第一档:(18分~20分)。完全完成了试题规定的任务:覆盖了所有内容要点;运用了多样的句式和丰富的词汇;语法或用词方面有个别错误;有效地使用了语句间的连接成分。

  第二档:(15分~17分)。完全完成了试题规定的任务:覆盖了所有内容要点;运用的句式和词汇能满足要求;语法和用词基本准确;使用了简单的语句间连接成分,所写内容连贯。

  第三档:(12分~14分)。基本完成了试题规定的任务:覆盖了内容要点;运用的句式和词汇基本满足任务要求;语法和用词方面有一些错误,但不影响理解。

  第四档:(6分~11分)。未恰当完成试题规定的任务:漏掉或未描述清楚主要内容;所用句式和词汇有限;语法或用词方面的错误影响了对所写内容的理解。未能清楚地传达信息。

  第五档:(1分~5分)。未完成试题规定的任务:明显遗漏主要内容;句式单调、词汇贫乏;语法错误较多 。

  第六档:0分。未能传达任何信息;所写内容与要求无关。

  (三)参考答案:  One possible version:

  How are things going?

  Last Monday, our class held a monitor election.  This was our first election, so everyone was excited. Two of my classmates took part in the race; Liu Dong and Wang Hong. They each gave a speech telling us what they would do when they were elected. Then we voted for the monitor. The result was 28 to 15 in Wang Hong’s favor. Wang Hong became our new monitor. The whole class cheered for her, and she promised to do the best she could for us all.

  Best wishes,

                                                Li Hua

  (四)学生的作文:

  (1)______分

  Last Monday, an exciting monitor election was held in my class. The two candidates are Liu Dong and Wang Hong. In the beginning of the election, each of them gave a speech to us and talked about the future plan. Then the most exciting moment came. Every student stood up and walked to the election box to cast a vote to his/her ideal monitor.

  I thought Wang Hong was well qualified for this position. So I wrote down her name and put my note into the box. Several minutes later, the final result came. Compared to Liu Dong’s 15 votes, Wang Hong got 28 votes and became or monitor. We all congratulated to Wang Hong and believed that she would serve our class heart and soul in the future.

  What about the monitor election in your class? I hope that I will receive your reply soon.

                             ( 2 )______分

  Last Monday, we had a monitor election. At the beginning the two candidates, LiuDong and Wang Hong gave us a speech introducing themselves and telling us their plans in the future. Then we had a vote. We wrote down the name of the better one in our mind and put the paper in a box. Then the exciting time came that our teacher counted the number and wrote it on the blackboard. The result was that 28 students who voted Wang Hong, 13 more than the number of students who voted LiuDong, which meaned WangHong was elected as our monitor. Wang is really pretty good. I believe she will be a good monitor.

  (五)得分与启示

  第一篇得分:19分;第二篇得分:13分。

  启示:

  1.第一篇得了高分是因为该文内容要点全,符合交际要求、语言地道,有复杂句式,顺畅连接和准确用语。

  2.第二篇得了三档的分数是因为该文虽然内容要点齐全,但语言功底不够,句式平庸,只会一般词汇,且有一定语言错误。

  3.考生要想得一个高分就一定要注意内容要全,连接要顺畅,句式要有变化,符合交际要求。    

  三、书面表达应试要领

  1.第一步是仔细审题。重点注意内容要点,写作对象和交际目的。

  2.要写草稿,实在没时间也要写一个提纲。

  3.确定好时态。转述别人观点常用现在时。记叙经常发生的事用一般现在时,描写过去发生的事用过去时。

  4.不出现中文,不用汉语拼音。不生造中国式的英语。要用你听过的话来说,用你读过的句子来写。

  5.第一句很重要,不要轻易下笔。尾句部分容易出错,要留意。

  6.为防止遗漏内容要点,可在原题上标出记号。

  7.几个必要的连词一定要用,或顺接、或转折、或让步、或比较。

  8.写记叙文,注意六个要素:who, where, when, why, how and the result.

  9.议论文,注意论点与论据一致。还要注意是让你写一方观点还是介绍对立的两种观点。

  10.应用文主要是写信或通知,告知活动安排。一般按时间顺序写比较稳妥。

  11.试卷注意部分给出的参考词汇应尽量用上,不要自作主张忽略不用。

  12.词汇的闪光之处即不要重复你在本文中用过的和大家都可能用的。全是简单句得不了好分。要用新颖的词汇传达最通俗的信息。

  13.采用多变的句式,如被动句式、定语从句,with加复合宾语以及倒装句等。

  14.有时候阅读题中的句型可以稍加改造,抄来用在自己的作文中。

  15.字数一般应稍多于试题的最低要求,但不宜过长,因为言多有失。

  16.写完后要检查复核,重点看动词的使用。最好是写完作文后先查查别的题型,因为自己刚写完的东西马上检查常常看不出问题。

  四、书面表达提高措施

  (一)几个小建议

  1.经常写随笔,每日三五句。出点错误也没什么。

  2.背诵小短文或漂亮句子,多多益善。

  3.最好的练习材料就是近几年各地的高考试题。练习时,先看题,自己写,写完后看答案,根据答案,修正自己的作文。但注意不要过多修正,要保持自己作文的原貌,每次只改动3~4个地方即可。

  4.初学写作多写记叙文。

  5.抄写短文,会使自己摆脱中文式的英文,可练习抄写新概念第二册。

  6.多听、多说、多读对写作的提高至关重要。

  (二)背会20个连接词语

  1. to tell the truth;2. last but not least;3. on the contrary;4. that is;5. believe it or not; 6. so far as I know;7. in the middle of; 8. next to;9. in addition; 10. in general;11. in short;12. so long as;13. to begin with;14. in case;15. what’s more;  16. as a matter of fact;17. on the other hand;18. as a result; 19. generally speaking;   20. in my opinion

  (三)熟练运用30个基础句型

  最基本句型5个:

  1. 主语+谓语  The story happened yesterday.

  2. 主语+谓语+宾语  They study English.

  3. 主语+系动词+表语  They are from London.

  4. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语  She made Tom stand there.

  5.主语+谓语+双宾语   I gave Tom a book.

  对比议论:

  1.我同意这个计划。I  am  in favor of  the plan.

  2.我们认为这不是个好计划。We don’t think it is a good plan.

  3.在我看来,它不值得做。It seems to me it is not worth doing.

  4. 学生们的观点不一致。Opinions are divided among the students.

  5. 有人认为它好,而别人认为不好。Some think it is good, while others believe it is poor.

  图画图表说明:

  1.这幅图画描写了我们的学校生活。This is a picture of our school life.

  2.有一个男孩站在那儿。There is a boy standing there.

  3.百分之八十的学生喜欢校服。Eighty percent of the students like school uniforms.

  4.三分之一的学生住得离学校近。One third of the students live near their school.

  5.自从1990年以来汽车的数量翻了一番。The number of cars has doubled since 1990.

  地方介绍

  1.学校中央有一座教学楼。There is a classroom building in the middle of the school.

  2.楼的南边有一个游泳池。A swimming pool is to the south of the building.

  3.楼的后面有许多树。There are many trees behind the building.

  4.楼的对面是宿舍。Opposite the building is a dorm.

  5.宿舍的旁边是食堂。Beside the dorm lies the dining hall.

  人物介绍

  1. 他和别人很好相处。He can get along well with others easily.

  2.他被认为是最好的学生之一。He is regarded as one of the best students.

  3.他闲暇时经常听音乐。He usually listens to music in his spare time.

  4.他毕业于第八中学。He graduated from No. 8 Middle School.

  5.他曾获英语竞赛第一名。He once got the first place in the English competition.

活动安排

  1.我们早上7点在校门口集合。We will gather at the school gate at seven in the morning.

  2.我们将乘公共汽车去。We will go there by bus.

  3.在那儿的饭店吃午饭。Lunch will be served in the restaurant there.

  4.我们下午5点才能回到学校。We won’t return to our school until 5:00 p.m.

  5.我将全程陪同。I will be in your company all the way.

  叙述事件

  1.故事发生在伦敦。The story happened in London.

  2.起初,他没看见那个人。At first, he didn’t see the man.

  3.然后,他走到汽车那儿。Then he went over to the bus.

  4.过了一会儿,他上了小汽车。After a little while, he got on the car.

  5.最后,他被捕了。In the end, he was arrested.

  (四)背会20个高考范文例句

  写人

  1.  I'm Wang Shan, a girl of sixteen, presently attending Beijing Yangguang Middle School.

  2.  I’m ready to give help whenever it is needed.

  3.  He is such a learned person that we all admire hem very much.

  4.  I think I'm fit for the job.

  写地点

  1.It’s a small flat of 25 square meters, with a bedroom, a bathroom and a kitchen.

  2.Our hotel stands 500 meters away from the entrance to Baishan Mountain.

  3.On the other side, where the playground used to be, now stands another building --- our library.

  写事

  1. Last night I was preparing for the coming examination when the noise from my neighbor interrupted me.

  2. Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.

  3.The time passed quickly. Before we knew it, we had to say goodbye to the workers.

  表达理由观点或讨论结果

  1. However, other students are against the idea, saying that the Beijing Zoo, built in 1906, has a history of 100 years, and is well known at home and abroad.

  2. Personally, I think it a good idea for us senior 3 students to have daily exercise.  

  3. As we all know, a good learning environment is vital if we want to study English well.

  数据与图表说明

  1. As is shown on Chart 2, only 10% of the time is taken up with sports activities.

  2. Chart 1 shows the daily average amount of time the students of the school spend on different after-class activities.

  3.Only seven percent of the students are most interested in reading articles about learning methods.

  写信和写通知

  1. I am writing to you about  the mobile phone I bought on April 20th.

  2.  If there is anything I can do for you, I will be more than glad to help.

  3.  Thank you very much in advance.

  4.  I look forward to hearing from you soon.

  (五)背会六篇高考范文

  1.对比议论类(05全国I)假设你是李华,最近国内一家英文报纸正在讨论北京动物园是否应迁出市区。以下是你所在班级讨论的情况。请你给该报写一封信。

  2.数字图表类(04北京)某学校对中学生课余活动进行了调查,结果如下。请根据图表1提供的信息描述学生每天的课余活动,并针对图表2中任何一个数据中反映的情况写出你的一个看法。词数不少于60。

  3.地点介绍(06全国)假定你是李华,应英国朋友Bob的要求,写一封短信介绍你校图书馆的基本情况。内容须包括下面两幅图中的相关信息。

  4.人物类(06北京)国际文化交流中心将组织一次由各国学生参加的“和平,友爱”夏令营活要求报名者提交英文个人简介。假设你是王珊,请根据下列信息写一篇个人简介。

  5.活动安排(08年全国卷Ⅱ)学习中文的各项活动安排。

  6.记叙文 (08年天津卷) 记叙乘地铁时遇到的一件事。

  (六)避免常见错误

  1. My mother work in a school. (works)

  2. They are worker.  (workers)

  3. My aunt worked hard and he was busy.  (she )

  4. His parents are all from London. ( both )

  5. They get up early yesterday. (got )

  (七)掌握地道的英语 (括号中的句子更好)

  1. My money is very little. (I have little money.)

  2. My money is more than yours.(I have more money than you.)

  3. People in my family are more than those in yours.

   (There are more people in my family than in yours.)

  4. I teach better than he.  (I am a better teacher than you.)

  5. I think the plan is not good.(I don’t think the plan is good.)

  (八)学会变换句型

  1.I was too excited to go to sleep.

  I was so excited that I couldn’t go to sleep. (用从句替换)

  They got married five years ago.

  They have been married for five years. (用完成时替换)

  3.He got up early so that he could catch the first bus.

  He got up early so as to catch the first bus. (用不定式替换)

  4.Try again and you will succeed.

  If you try again, you will succeed. (用条件句替换)

  5.I am sorry I missed the bus.

  I wish I had caught the bus. (用虚拟语气替换)

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